History of PMRI in Indonesia
Achmad Dhany Fachrudin
Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) is basically adapted from Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) that originaly developed in The Netherlands. RME is based on Freudental oppinion which is Mathematics is a human activity. It does mean, student must be involved in mathematics teaching and learning process. In RME, for a meaningful Mathematics learning, teachers should include a variety of situation and opportunities so that students can gradually develop understanding of mathematics and finally reinvent the mathematical concepts. In order to adapt with the Indonesian environment and give certain characteristics, the developer of PMRI in Indonesia added the word ‘Indonesia’.
The Netherlands is a piooner of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). According to the result of the Third InternationalMathematics and Science Study (TMMS), students in the Netherlands attained high achievements in Mathematics (Hadi, 2002). So that PMRI is considered to be a promising approach in Indonesia in order to improve Mathematics teaching and learning in Indonesia (Fauzan, 2002), and why PMRI is attempted to be applied in Indonesia nowadays.
In PMRI, real world is used as a starting point for the development of mathematical concept (Hadi, 2002). However, we need to be careful, because real world here must be concrete for student. A real world problem sometimes concrete for student in certain area but it can appear to be not concrete for student in another area. In PMRI we must use the real world that is really concrete for the student. Also, learning process have to be student centre with teacher as a guider.
There are three principles of PMRI, first is Guided Reinvention and Progressif Mathematizing. This means that teacher must give a chance for student to reinvent the mathematical concept by giving a contextual problem in the biginning, then teacher give a guidance in such a way that student reinvent the concept themselves. The second is Didactical Phenomenology. In learning process mathematical concept is attained by generalizing the solutions of the problem given. To get the concept, student is asked to find the conclusion based on their problems’ solutions. In another word they need to build their own knowladge. The last principle is Self Developed Models. Models are used as a bridge between informal and formal knowladge, also students is asked to develope their own model in order to solve and find the solution of problems given. Next, hopefully throghout these models the formal knowladge can be achieved by the student.
Besides these principles, PMRI has five chracteristics. In short those are (Zulkardi):
- Use of contextual problems. The contextual problems here, should not always be a real problem situations from real life, but they can also a situation that is real in students minds.
- Use of models or bridging by vertical instrument. The models bridge the gap between informal and formal knowledge of the students. Developing models and symbolyzations are used rather than the rule of formal mathematics.
- Use of students contributions. The huge contributions come from students the rather than the teachers. These lead to the attaining of formal mathematics.
- Interactivity. Interactivity in teaching and learning occur among taechers, students and leaning tools used. This contains of negotiation, discussion, and cooperation. Those are very important in learning process.
- Intertwining of learning strand. The learning strands in mathematics must be intertwined aech other.
Zulkardi. Developing a’ rich’ learning environment on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for student teachers in Indonesia
Hadi, Sutarto. 2002. Effective Teacher Professional Development for The Implementation of Realistic Mathematics Education in Indonesia. University of Twente
Fauzan, Ahmad. 2002. Appliying Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) in Teaching Geometry in Indonesia Primary School. University of Twente