First Instructional Design of RME:” Teaching of Angle Comparison by Using Styrofoam and Ropes for Grade 4 of SDN 179 Palembang“
Achmad Dhany Fachrudin1
Ummy Salmah2, dan Sitti Busyrah3
International Master Program on Mathematics Education (IMPoME 2012)
“Mathematics is a human activity” is considered to be a familiar statement expressed by Hans Freudenthal. Through this statement, Freudenthal wanted to show that Mathematics is not a product which teacher can give to the pupils directly, but as a form of activity in constructing mathematical concept (Wijaya, 2008). This statement is also a base of development of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), a mathematical learning approach which comes from The Netherland. Nowadays RME is also developing in Indonesia namely Indonesia Realistic Mathematics Education (IRME). Teaching and learning process in RME emphasize the importance of meaningful concept in mathematics for pupils. It is also supported by another Freudenthal statement which is teaching and learning happen only if it is meaningful for the pupils.(Wijaya, 2008). Therefore, to make conceptual understanding of pupils, teacher should make the condition of meaningful learning that can be reached by using IRME approach. This underlies us to make a design of teaching and learning in elementary school using IRME approach.
The material chosen by researchers in developing the design of teaching and learning at the time is measurement, with sub material angel measurement. Here, researchers try to use “senam tangan” and tool media that made of ropes and styrofoam to bridge between the informal and formal knowledge of pupils in the material of angle.
Furthermore, we will describe about how the researchers and teacher designed the teaching and learning process, implemented the design and conduct a retrospective analysis of learning design in the section below.
II. Designing Instructional
The material analysed was knowing and comparing angle for pupils in grade 4 SDN 179 Palembang. This was conducted for designing learning of knowing and comparing angle that would be taught using “senam tangan” activity and tool media which was developed by the researchers and teacher.
- Preliminary Design: design the instructional scenario by researcher team and the teacher.
At this stage, the research team analysed the curriculum related to material that would be reviewed, which is the measurement angle, formulated learning goals and learning indicators, defined the context of the approach used and designed learning activities that was going to be carried out.
Based on analysis of the curriculum, comparing angles is material taught in grade fourth semester 1 with the competency standards is use measurement of angle, length and weight in problem solving and basic competence is to determine the angle by non-standard units and degrees units. Based on the internal discussions (teachers not involved) had been done, learning indicators chosen by the researchers is knowing the angle, comparing between two angles and measuring angles with standard and non-standard units for once meeting. Furthermore, the researchers determined the context used in instructional design and prepared a preliminary design of learning tools that would be used, such as worksheets, lesson plans, and tool media. Researchers use the Styrofoam boards, ropes and pins as tool media to make an angel.
On October 30, 2012, the researchers met the teacher (Mrs Intan) to discuss the initial learning tools already prepared. Further, after discussing, we got some advice from the tacher. First, we should reduce the learning indicators became knowing the angles and comparing between two angle only. Secondly, the addition of the context used in the teaching and learning process. The last was we should add the tool media used, that is the examples of sectors that have different angle sizes.
To find out the shortcomings of the design of learning that had been designed and to see the pupils’ mindset in solving a given problem, then the design of learning should be implemented in the classroom. Implementation of lesson plan and analysis of pupil work will be described in the section ‘teaching experiments’.